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Green Mining - Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Green Mining. Using Environmentally Conscious Mining Standards. Overview. New mining technologies and regulations have significantly improved mining efficiency and reduced environmental impact in recent years. In general, mining techniques become much more environmentally sensitive when efficiency is improved because less waste is produced.

A Brief Introduction to the Types of Surface Mining Methods

These surface mining methods are considered to be more efficient and economical in extracting minerals as compared to most methods of underground mining. In fact, it can extract almost 90% of ore from a deposit. For this reason, surface mining is the most widely used method in North America.

Hard Rock Miner's Handbook

of the Mining Journal,, and many other members of the mining community, the Hard Rock Miner's Handbook has been distributed to over 113 countries worldwide. Web hits and downloads continue as students and professors, miners, engineers, and mining executives embrace the Handbook as an invaluable source of practical

Underground Mining Methods - UFRGS

mining (or "post-pillar" mining) is a combination of room-and- pillar and cut-and-fill stoping. With this method, ore is recovered in horizontal slices starting from the bottom and advancing upward. Pillars are left inside the stope to support the roof. Mined-out stopes are hydraulically backfilled with tailings, and

Method of open cut mining - SELLERS; GORDON

The present invention relates to an improved method of open cut mining. With conventional open cut mining it is normal to use a loading type device such as a drag line to remove the overburden, and to remove the required minerals, or to use power shovels to load the minerals onto trucks which then leave the pit by means of ramps to deposit minerals such as coal in a holding area.

Surface Mining Methods and Equipment - EOLSS

appropriate mining method is selected based on technical, economic, and environmentally accountable considerations. The first step in selecting the most appropriate mining method is to compare the economic efficiency of extraction of the deposit by surface and underground mining methods . This section reviews surface mining methods and ...

Stoping Mining Methods

Apr 03, 2017· Each method, one a supported-stope method and the other a caved-stope method, is essential to the complete extraction of the block of ore. Again, a block-caving system in which a considerable part of the ore is mined by shrinkage in undercutting stopes and boundary cut-offs and the balance by caving in reality constitutes a combination method.


descriptions of the most common methods. Open-pit mining Open-pit mining is a type of strip mining in which the ore deposit extends very deep in the ground, necessitating the removal of layer upon layer of overburden and ore. In many cases, logging of trees and clear-cutting or burning of vegetation above the ore deposit

Extracting salt from mines

Two main methods of extracting rock salt are used in underground mining: Cut and blast mining consists in cutting slots at the base of the rock face. A series of carefully sited holes are drilled and then charged with explosives to blast the rock. The resulting salt …

Underground Mining Methods and Equipment

methods and brief explanations of the techniques of room-and-pillar mining, sublevel stoping, cut-and-fill, longwall mining, sublevel caving, and block caving. The second section describes underground mining equipment, with particular focus on excavation machinery such as boomheaders, coal cutters, continuous miners and shearers. 1. Underground ...

- Cut And Fill Mining Method - YouTube

Feb 10, 2018· Black Diamond Drilling Services AustraliaDatabase

What are the main methods of mining? | American ...

There are four main mining methods: underground, open surface (pit), placer, and in-situ mining. Underground mines are more expensive and are often used to reach deeper deposits. Surface mines are typically used for more shallow and less valuable deposits. Placer mining is used to sift out valuable metals from sediments in river channels, beach sands, or other environments.

Cut-and-fill mining | Britannica

In mining: Cut-and-fill mining. This system can be adapted to many different ore body shapes and ground conditions. Together with room-and-pillar mining, it is the most flexible of underground methods. In cut-and-fill mining, the ore is removed in a series of …

Hardrock Mining Techniques|Underground Mines|Minings Method

Cut and Fill mining is a method of short hole mining used in narrow ore zones. An access ramp is driven off the main level to the bottom of the ore zone to be accessed. Using development mining techniques a drift is driven through the ore to the defined limit of mining. Upon completion the drift (or "cut") is filled back to the access ramp with ...

CDC - Mining - Underhand Cut and Fill Mining in Three Hard ...

Underhand cut and fill mining methods are used at the Lucky Friday, Stillwater, and Galena mines in the western US in an effort to safely mine in difficult ground conditions and as a primary mining method where access below the ore is limited. The method …

Mine Backfill - MiningInfo

Mechanized cut and fill mining refers to cut and fill stopes that are accessible by rubber tired equipment from the regular mine access development. Mechanized cut and fill stopes can be very productive with stope widths in excess of 40 m in good ground conditions and stope lift heights of 4 to 8 metres.

Here are the Types of Underground Mining and Their ...

Cut and Fill Mining In this technique, ore is excavated in horizontal slices, after which, the stope (mined-out space) is filled with waste rock and cement (called a back fill). This back fill helps support the overlying rock, and prevents it from collapsing, thus ensuring the safety of the miners and equipment, besides allowing proper ventilation.


Recent new methods have aimed to decrease the time spent on filling operation. Cut-and-Fill Mining: Advanced. General Approach. For many decades, cut-and-fill method was perhaps the most widely used method, especially in metal mines. It was then replaced by other methods to a great extent and wherever possible.

Cut and fill - QueensMineDesignWiki

Cut and fill mining is a highly selective open-stope mining method considered ideal for steeply dipping high grade deposits found in weak host rock. Many variations of the general cut and fill technique exist, however this article will focus on overhand cut and fill.


As a mining method cut and fill is ideally suited to the extraction of ore from narrow steeply dipping orebodies, from orebodies with irregular contacts or outlines, from orebodies with poor or low strength wall rock, and for pillar recovery. The majority of the production from cut …

Underground hard-rock mining - Wikipedia

Cut and fill mining is a method of short-hole mining used in steeply dipping or irregular ore zones, in particular where the hanging wall limits the use of long-hole methods. The ore is mined in horizontal or slightly inclined slices, and then filled with waste rock, sand or tailings.

Mining types and methods -

Mining types and methods Coal mining Hardrock mining Metal mining Nonmetal mining Oil and gas extraction Sand and gravel mining Stone mining Surface mining Benching Highwall mining Open pit mining Outside dumping Placer mining Underground mining Auger mining Caving Block caving Drift mining Hydraulic backfill Hydraulic mining Leaching Longwall ...

Mining techniques for companies| surface, underground ...

Mining Techniques is divided into two types: surface mining and underground mining.Mining targets are divided into two categories of materials: placer deposits and lode deposits. If a mineral is stable chemically and is resistant physically, it can be eroded from its primary hard-rock occurrence and transported to river channels, deltas or other sedimentary environments where it can be ...

Types of Underground Mining Method Comparison

Mar 16, 2017· Cutting out, or lead stoping. Raise stoping. Longitudinal back, flat-back, or long-wall stoping. Rill-cut stoping. Saw-tooth back stoping. Shrinkage stoping. Combination stoping. Breast stoping. Side stoping. Sublevel stoping. Square-set stoping. …

2012 Americas School of Mines

Open pit mining Mining Methods 5 Open pit mines are used to exploit low grade, shallow ore bodies. However, some pits are quite deep – about 1 km. The mining rate is greater than 20,000 tonnes per day (tpd) but is usually much greater. Some pits operate at a rate of more than 100,000 tpd

Appendix F: Underground Coal Mining Methods and ...

In the past, separate machines were used for cutting, drilling, blasting, and loading the coal and the method was called conventional room-and-pillar mining. At the present time, in room-and-pillar mining, a continuous miner mechanically cuts and loads the coal …

What are the main methods of mining? | American ...

Sep 14, 2014· There are four main mining methods: underground, open surface (pit), placer, and in-situ mining. Underground mines are more expensive and are often used to reach deeper deposits. Surface mines are typically used for more shallow and less valuable deposits. Placer mining is used to sift out valuable metals from sediments in river channels, beach sands, or other environments.

Underhand cut and fill - QueensMineDesignWiki

Geological Setting. Underhand cut and fill is a versatile mining method; it can be used in orebodies of varying widths and dips, from vertically dipping to flat lying.It is most useful in ore where the wall rock or vein is unconsolidated and cannot be safely mined using traditional cut and fill.Underhand cut and fill has been particularly successful in rockburst-prone areas.

(PDF) Underground mining Methods - ResearchGate

The method is similar to cut and fill mining with the ex ception that after being blasted, broken ore is left in the stope where it is used t o support the surrounding rock and as a platform from ...

(PDF) Cut-and-Fill stoping - ResearchGate

Figure showing cut and fill mining method. Remove or e in horizon tal slices, starting . from a bottom undercut and advancing . upward. As each horizont al slice is tak en, the .